Chapter 1 Cells Test

Consider this a gift! These are the 16 questions that will be on the test in one form or another. Remember, you still need to label each part of a plant and animal cell as well know the purpose/role of each organelle.

Short Answer Questions

1. List the six characteristics of living organisms.

2. Identify the characteristics of living things for each of the following examples:
a. Plant roots grow downwards.
b. Human kidneys produce urine.
c. Geese lay eggs that hatch into goslings.
d. The lifespan of humans is around 80 years.
e. We eat everyday.

3. What are the two ideas in the cell theory?

4. When using a microscope, list the path of light from the object to your eye.

5. Explain the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

6. Describe the functions of the two structures that only plant cells have.

7. Plant cells have cell walls, while animal cells do not. Explain why.

8. List the main differences between plant and animal cells.

9. Explain the roles of the following organelles in the production of proteins:
ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus

10. Explain how lysosomes clean up your cells.

11. Using the cell membrane as an example, explain what is meant by selectively permeable.

12. Explain the difference between diffusion and osmosis.

13. Explain how osmosis and turgor pressure are related.

14. Using the cell in Figure 1.3, describe the movement of water.

15. Muscle cells have a greater number of mitochondria than other animal cells. Using the
function of the mitochondria, explain why this is.

16. Describe one example each of permeable, selectively permeable, and non-permeable
materials found around your home.

Chapter 1 Cells Answer Section


1. ANS:
Living things are composed of cells.
Living things reproduce, grow and repair themselves.
Living things require energy.
Living things respond to the environment.
Living things die.
Living things produce waste.

2. ANS:
a. Living things respond to the environment.
b. Living things produce waste.
c. Living things reproduce, grow and repair themselves.
d. Living things die.
e. Living things require energy.

3. ANS:
All living things are composed of one or more cells.
All new cells arise only from cells that already exist.

4. ANS:
object, objective lens, ocular/body tube, eye piece/ocular lens

5. ANS:
Prokaryotic cells have no nuclear membrane, while eukaryotic cells have their chromosomes contained in a nucleus.

6. ANS:
Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll that allow plants to make their own food using light from the sun, water and carbon dioxide.
Cell walls protect and support plant cells.

7. ANS:
Plants do not have any support system such as the skeleton that many animals have. Plant cells are tightly packed with their cell walls attached to each other to give plants the support they need.

8. ANS:
Plant cells have chloroplasts, animals cells do not.
Plant cells have cell walls, animals cells do not.
Some animal cells have structures that allow them to move, plants cells do not.

9. ANS:
Ribosomes are the site of protein production. The endoplasmic reticulum transports proteins through the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus stores proteins before packaging them for release from the cell.

10. ANS:
Lysosomes contain special proteins that break down waste molecules into smaller useful molecules that cm be re-used by the cell.

11. ANS:
The cell membrane allows some materials to enter or leave the cell but not others.

12. ANS:
Diffusion is the movement of any substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Osmosis is the movement of water only across a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

13. ANS:
If the concentration of water outside a plant cell is higher than the concentration of water inside then water will enter the cell by osmosis. The vacuole and cytoplasm will fill and swell and push against the cell wall. This is turgor pressure.

14. ANS:
The concentration of water outside of the cell is greater than it is inside the cell, so water will move into the cell across the cell membrane by osmosis.

15. ANS:
Mitochondria are the organelles that provide energy for the cell by releasing the energy from glucose. Muscle cells function by moving and therefore need more energy than some other cells.

16. ANS:
Permeable materials include open windows and doors.
Selectively permeable materials include coffee filters, tea bags strainers, and window screens or curtains.
Non-permeable materials include glass, brick, and plastics.

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